What We’re Reading
2019 Hannon Armstrong Reading List Collection
The books lining our shelves help us to reflect on our core values and our ongoing engagement and connection with the world we all share. On a monthly basis, we gather to share insights on selected books that relate to our investment thesis, the economics, the politics, physics, and the reality of climate change.
Superpower: One Man’s Quest to Transform American Energy
by Russell Gold
Review coming soon by Susan Nickey, Managing Director
Amity and Prosperity: One Family and the Fracturing of America
by Eliza Griswold
Review by Jeff Lipson, Chief Financial Officer
At the core of this well-written, non-fiction story are several themes. As with the 2016 best-seller Hillbilly Elegy, Amity and Prosperity provides a thoughtful glimpse into life in Appalachia (Amity and Prosperity are two towns in rural Washington County, Pennsylvania). Another theme is of an overwhelmed single mother relentlessly attempting to determine the cause of her son’s persistent illness, which she is certain is the result of the nearby fracking pond dug by Range Resources. A third theme is government agencies at all levels failing to provide any support to a citizen in need of its services, but rather providing indifference, incompetence, and often support of the large energy company.
The book does not deviate into any lengthy descriptions of fracking and energy policy but is focused on the human toll of energy extraction.
Stacey Haney is the book’s protagonist.The reader immediately embraces Stacey as a small-town nurse, daughter of a Vietnam veteran, and mother of two, who loves living on a farm enjoying her children participating in small-town rites-of-passage such as showing their goats at the 4-H fair. As the book begins, Amity is at the center of a fracking boom. The townspeople have two attitudes toward fracking – it’s patriotic as it reduces reliance on foreign oil and creates jobs, and it’s an opportunity to cash in as the historical perspective is that coal was extracted from local land, but the community never participated in the profits.
Stacey and her neighbor Beth Voyles readily sign drilling leases, although the reader cringes as Stacey and Beth are ushered into an office at 4:30 p.m. without legal representation to sign their leases. Problems with noise, dust, air quality, and most notably water quality begin almost immediately; and Stacey’s son Harley becomes severely ill missing an entire year of school.
Stacey begins an incredibly long, complex, and frustrating journey of attempting to obtain clean water, keep her home, battle Range Resources, and secure the assistance of government agencies. She is relentless but facing impossible odds as she encounters the corporate/energy/regulatory structure that has too many entrenched resources. Even many locals see her as a “trouble-maker” and a risk to their fracking profits.
Stacey is joined in this mission by Kendra Smith and incredibly diligent small-town lawyer. With a relentless work ethic, Kendra uncovers shocking hubris and fraud. She battles Range Resources, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, and various other corporate and regulatory entities. She solicits the assistance of the EPA and Justice Department, both of which shockingly fail to act.
Ultimately, the complex relationship between government and Appalachia is an interesting backdrop of this story. Ironically, Washington County is home to the Whiskey Rebellion of 1791-94 in which locals tar-and-feathered the tax collector of Alexander Hamilton’s whiskey tax. President Washington sent 13,000 federal troops to quash the rebellion in the young country’s first test of its willingness to enforce federal laws and utilize federal troops against its citizens. Two hundred and thirty years later, rural distrust of government remains an important component of small-town life, particularly as related to energy policy. In discussing federal regulation, one Amity resident claims “people from Philadelphia and Pittsburgh are bottom-feeders who don’t want to know where their meat or energy comes from.”
The human toll of fracking and other energy extraction, particularly in areas primarily populated by persons of limited means is a thought-provoking and long-standing challenge. Amity and Prosperity causes one to confront these issues in the context of a struggling but relentless small-town woman. This book will cause you to cheer for Stacey with all your heart, and perhaps re-think your impression of Appalachia and energy policy. For all these reasons, an excellent read.
Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress
by Steven Pinker
Review by Jeffrey Eckel, CEO
Oh, to be an author and have Bill Gates call your work “My new favorite book of all time.” Pinker writes a vast survey of the human condition and finds it in the best shape it has ever been. From life expectancy, health and decline of diseases worldwide, to peace, democracy and human rights, data is convincingly presented to support the conclusion that people, and society have never had it better.
The first section of the book is a refresher of the Enlightenment, when reason and science triumphed over blind faith in religion, particularly it’s human purveyors. It encouragingly contains a prominent review of the Second Law of Thermodynamics the “foundation of the universe and our place in it” and quotes Eddington who calls it “the supreme law of nature.” My entire four-decade career has been focused on the 2nd Law, since a Geography of Energy course as a junior in college. It underpins one-third of our investment thesis and is the foundation of energy efficiency, our largest business. How promising!
The second and largest part of the book focuses on the spectacular improvements in 13 dimensions of the human condition and one, chapter 10, in the middle of the section, on the environment. This is the first sign that he might also need to focus on the First Law of Thermodynamics, energy in a system is a constant, as well as the Second. How did so many good things happen to humans? What is the source of this bounty? Physics requires balance in the system. Pinker does not. Rather than sticking to the good start of integrating the 2nd Law into the progress of the human condition, he separates it and then needlessly enters a diatribe on the long history of environmental alarmists from the first “Limits to Growth” to Naomi Klein bashing. He ignores the possibility that the environmental issues, that were perhaps overstated in hindsight, might also have substantial elements of truth. He concludes “But resources just refuse to give out”, forgetting the Second Law, that there is entropy (e.g. excess CO2) in the resources that ‘refuse to give out’. Pinker believes climate change is serious and must be addressed now and has useful solutions (carbon pricing, nuclear power and even ‘moderate’ climate engineering). But somehow it sits awkwardly outside of the other 13 chapters, as if it can be separated.
The final section is a plea to return to reason, science and humanism, set against the modern complications of dogmatism, digital information explosion and unprecedented complexity in everything. He surveys a lifetime of reading suggestions, convincing me that I can learn much from more study of this section. In the end the plea to ‘apply knowledge to enhance human flourishing’ is of course compelling.
In an email correspondence with Pinker last summer, I congratulated him on the book and suggested he could improve the second edition with a more integrated consideration of the Second Law. He referred me to the orphaned Chapter 10. I will send him the link to this review and see if I can’t get him more engaged. I’m no Bill Gates, but that doesn’t mean this compelling book can’t be improved.
Modernizing America’s Electricity Infrastructure
by Mason Willrich
Review by Bessie Clark, Director – Private Investment Team
Willrich proposes a comprehensive national strategy to modernize the electric grid sustainably, affordably and reliably. He is the first to detail a coherent framework, and in doing so thoughtfully considers the vast complexities of our critical infrastructure across multiple stakeholders, participants and jurisdictions.
In Part I “The Past”, Willrich guides readers through the history of the grid, from the invention of the lightbulb through the evolution of today’s regional power markets. Willrich explains the key industry-shaping events over the 140-year history of electricity, including Three Mile Island, enactment of PURPA, collapse of Enron, and the creation of IPP model.
Part II, “The Present” offers a snapshot of the U.S. electric power sector in 2015, including resource mix, ownership, and regulatory regime. This sets the stage for Willrich’s recommendations in the final section, Part III, where he lays out a vision for the future of the electricity grid. Willrich’s strategy focuses on four overarching principles – reliability, security, sustainability, financeability – and concludes with 15 detailed recommendations for putting a transformative plan into action.
Of particular interest is his suggestion that intensive financial oversight will be required for modernization of the grid, to avoid excessive leverage and address high technology and market risks. Here I think he misses the mark and believe the analysis would benefit from further discussion of the critical role that private sector financing will continue to play in achieving grid modernization.
For anyone in the energy industry, this is a must-read that offers valuable context for the evolution of the grid, acts as a guide to its regulatory complexities and, most importantly, provides a foundation for understanding the immense opportunity that lies ahead.
Energy and Civilization: A History
by Vaclav Smil
Review by Tyler Broyles, Manager – Accounting
Over the course of 440 pages, Vaclav Smil takes readers from humanity’s first application of energy – using campfires for cooking – through the many advances on the path to our modern electrified world.
Rather than limiting his discussion to high-level sea changes, Smil explores a host of incremental advances that humans have used to harness energy, including detailed sections covering improvements in plows and harnesses as well as the transition from undershot-style to overshot-style waterwheels.
As you might expect, this makes for a dense read. Thankfully, Smil provides a variety of graphics to bring the story to life – including charts and drawings of the various industrial mills and machines. As the story unfolds, Smil provides a keen analysis of the industrial era and the 20th century, highlighting both the increase in the availability of energy and our ability to use it efficiently. While several of the examples such as lighting and transportation are quite obvious, Smil also dives into the less familiar but equally impactful ways we’ve put energy to work over the years – such as Haber-Bosch ammonia synthesis, which is employed in fertilizing a large portion of the planet’s crops. By not limiting the discussion to Western Europe and North America in this section, Smil deserves extra credit for his broad geographic and cultural focus.
While the majority of Energy and Civilization is a well-researched matter of fact historical readout, Smil chose to editorialize more in the final chapter when highlighting the carbon crisis and his appropriate fears for the future. However, Smil does not devote many pages to what he believes the answer is to this growing problem. While it’s reasonable to assume this is may be outside the scope of an already voluminous work, one can’t help but be curious of the author’s views on possible solutions given his vast knowledge on the subject at hand.
In closing, Smil emphasizes that change comes gradually and that various eras of energy production generally overlap, pointing out that draft horse usage in American agriculture did not peak until 1917, well after coal began to rise. We know that to meet the goals of the Paris Climate Accord, we will need to transition to new, cleaner energy sources faster than we have been able to historically.
Despite the lack of emphasis on the future, Energy and Civilization is a thorough and intelligent text – a reliable resource for students of energy and history alike.